This model was up-armored, with an add-on welded plate raising the front to 101-102 mm (3.98 in). Tamamiyle İngiliz tophanelerinde üretilen, iki parçalı namlusu bulunan, yüksek hızlı ve makul bir zırha sahip bir tanktı. The Cromwell, in turn, was succeeded by small numbers of the Comet tank. It had a mixed reception by crews, being faster, with a lower profile and thicker frontal armour plate than the Sherman tank, but also being smaller and more cramped. Portuguese Army Cavalry School Museum, Santarém, Portugal. The turret offered hydraulically powered turret traverse motors with proportional speed control. Originally, the order of 1,000 was given to Rolls-Royce, that asked the government for an open credit of £1 million. This was noted as being slow to operate, and trapped dirt. There was a 7.92 mm Besa machine gun mounted co-axially to the main armament, operated by the gunner. This required a much larger turret ring, which in turn required the hull to be lengthened and an additional road wheel to be added to each side for a total of six. And it saw service in WWII ? The technology utilised for armouring the Cromwell tank, based purely on welding armor plates, was very innovative at this time and simplified the mass production of tanks. [21] The tank was praised for its speed and reliability, while its low profile made it harder to spot. The main gun was removed and two N°19 (High & Low Power) wireless sets were carried. T121710W. [11] Instead Cromwells fought alongside the 17pdr armed Sherman Firefly or Challenger, both of which could destroy Panthers and Tigers at standard combat distances. A production version using, from the start, a welded construction and 75 mm (2.95 in) gun. Named after the English Civil War leader Oliver Cromwell, the Cromwell was the first tank put into service by the British to combine high speed from a powerful and reliable engine (the Rolls-Royce Meteor), and reasonable armour. Several other British firms also built Centaur and Cromwell tanks, however, as the numbers required were greater than any one company could deliver. This was something that previous models armed with the 2-pounder couldn’t do, not even the so-called “CS” versions armed with a 95 mm (3.74 in) gun, mostly reserved for smoke rounds. Armoured Corps Museum, Ahmednagar, Maharashtra, India. Necessary cookies are absolutely essential for the website to function properly. https://i.imgur.com/9ilel2q.jpg This issue led to the development of the A34 Comet, while the gun bore was increased to 76.2mm to gain compatibility with the 17-pounder ammunition albeit with smaller shell casings with less propellent. The Cromwell was developed in 1941–1942 by BRC&W. Being must faster than the Sherman and favored by a lower profile, they also had a thicker frontal armor plate and a good gun. Eventually, Meadows was contracted, but by then the manufacturer also declined the order, due to over-capacity. Museum of Zadorozhniy Tec, Russia. In June 1944, the Cromwell saw action for the first time, during Operation Overlord, the Allied invasion of Normandy. Centaur IV. This led to a series of up-gunned Crusaders mounting the 6-pounder.[5]. The production model design was finalised on 2 February 1944 when Leyland released specifications for what they called the "Battle Cromwell". [citation needed]. The armour on the Cromwell ranged from 8 mm up to 76 mm thick overall. Whittle had, during the same period, contacted Rolls for help delivering some of the required parts that Rover proved unable to produce. 19 and 2 x No. [15] On later Cromwells this was further increased, first to 3 1⁄4 in (83 mm), then to 4 in (100 mm). The hull frame consisted of riveted beams, but later production versions resorted to welding. Design also commenced on a 17-pounder armed version under specification A30, leading to parallel development of the A30 Challenger. it’s in WOT as an upgrade for the cromwell. The latter had access to ammunition racks and had his own No.35 telescope and a one-piece hatch. Adrian Barrell Collection, UK. The gearbox had five forward and one reverse gears. A total of 1,070 vehicles were mass-produced from late 1943 through 1945. ), both vehicles are very similar designs. Fuel consumption on "pool" petrol (67 octane) was between 0.5 and 1.5 miles per gallon depending on terrain. This variant allegedly had thinner armor of mild-steel construction (and interestingly, due to the reduced weight, a greater top speed than combat variants). This was still way below the total of Shermans used by the British Army and the Commonwealth and, for the sake of standardization, first line regular units were preferably equipped with the Sherman, while the Cromwell was mostly used for special (elite) units and more specific purposes. The standard 75mm gun could tackle the majority of German armoured vehicles, and the HE shell was effective, but could not penetrate the front of heavier German tanks such as the Tiger or Panther. However, development delays meant a first model, the A24 Cavalier, then known as “Cromwell I”, was produced. A Centaur Mk.III, for comparison. Cromwells (and 75mm armed Shermans) were supplemented by these vehicles at varying ratios per troop of 1/2 to 1/3. The cooling system drew air in through the top of each side and the roof. Cromwell Mark VII of the 7th Armoured Division, the “Desert Rats”, Korea, October 1950. Production began in November 1942. A single mark could cover up to four types, and a type up to six marks making classification complex. Cromwell was heavier than the Сrusader. The Cromwell was also used by Allied units of the 1st Polish Armoured Division (10th Mounted Rifle Regiment) and 1st Czechoslovak Armoured Brigade, which soldiered in the Netherlands and Germany until V-day in May 1945. To allow fording through up to 4 ft (1.2 m) deep water, a flap could be moved to cover the lowermost air outlet. In contrast, the Centaur was chiefly used for training; only those in specialist roles saw action. Increases in Cromwell's design weight from 24 to 27 tons resulted in a reworking of the suspension during the design process, which was not reflected on Centaur. This proved to be one of the primary elements in the development of the Main Battle Tank. The Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Cromwell (A27M), and the related Centaur (A27L) tank, were one of the most successful series of cruiser tanks fielded by Britain in the Second World War. Production was led by Leyland Motors on Centaur, and Birmingham Railway Carriage and Wagon Company on Cromwell. Creator/User: Britain Denomination: Mark IV Cromwell tank. 35 telescope, which was connected through a linkage to the mounting. Currently just a restored hull with no turret. Centaur Dozer. Cromwell Tanks were used by Czechoslovakia and Israel. In running condition. These were fitted with two No. The armor plates were bolted to the frame, particularly on the turret, which left large characteristic bosses on the outside. Isle of Wight Military Museum, Hampshire, England. The armour plate was then bolted to the frame; large bosses on the outside of the plate were used on the turret. A Cromwell Mk. Cromwell Vw upgraded to the Cromwell VII standard or built as such from the start. There were no track return rollers. The official handover of the Meteor and W.2 took place on 1 January 1943. Artist impression of a Cromwell, boxart, Airfix. [dubious – discuss] This led to a surplus in Sherman tank manufacturing capacity, and significant pressure was placed for the Cromwell programme to be cancelled in favour of US-produced Shermans. This was not entirely accidental; British tank policy of the time suggested that different models of the same tank, carrying different specialised weapons, was a better solution to this problem than a single weapon that attempted to do all things. In fact, with the introduction of Shermans in British service in North Africa at the end of 1942, a consensus was reached about the use of guns firing powerful HE shells against infantry. Cromwell IV. Centaur IV. The Comet would eventually lead to the Centurion in 1945, the world’s first MBT and one of the most successful tanks ever designed. The tank was also used by the 1st (Czechoslovakian) Independent Armoured Brigade Group as part of the First Canadian Army in Dunkirk.[11]. [16] Centaur under Leyland continued without this development. Leyland also suggested using a diesel engine of their own design, although this was later abandoned. It was therefore decided to govern the engine maximum RPM and, thus, the top speed. After the end of the war, in October 1949, the three Centaur companies were organised into the 391 Tank Regiment. Refitting the design of the A24 Cromwell for the Meteor engine was not acceptable to Nuffield, and hence a new specification of tank was created working with Leyland, the A27 Cromwell. On all diagrams on the armour of of the Cromwell that I can find, the flat front plate thickness is listed as 63.5/64mm (2.5in) rather than the 76mm (3in) stated on Wikipedia and Here. This prototype had increased track width and the hull machine gun was removed to increase storage. However, development of the Vickers HV 50 calibre 75mm gun continued, with the bore increasing to fire modified versions of the 17-pounder ammunition. Four out of the five road wheels (rubber-clad) had shock absorbers. The intended dual-purpose high velocity gun could not be fitted in the turret and the medium velocity dual purpose gun fitted proved inadequate. A hull and a dozer hull owned by Staman International Trading, Nijverdal, Netherlands. Heintz Barracks, Bastogne, Belgium. Behind them can be seen a regular Cromwell armed with a 75 mm cannon. Discovered in a good state of preservation in the. Main armament: one Ordnance QF 75 mm gun (6 Pounder) Mk V ROQF Secondary armament: two 7.92 mm Besa machine gun (4,950 rounds) The Cromwell was developed in 1941–1942 by BRC&W. Along with the need to be quick another design requirement was reliability. Get all 4 Tank Encyclopedia Magazine issues for 25% off! The A27M was also used by the IDF in the War of Independence (1948–1949). The High Velocity 75mm gun was developed in an attempt to give both good anti-tank and HE performance, but in May 1943 proved too big to be fitted to the Cromwell. The Cromwell tank, officially Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Cromwell (A27M), was one of the series of cruiser tanks fielded by Britain in the Second World War. when you say ‘The RR Meteor was an in-line V12 water-cooled gasoline engine ‘, is this is a mistake? It is unclear if it was granted its own number or also referred to as the A24. The Shermans proved to be the most reliable by far, requiring 420 hours of specialist fitter attention over a total distance travelled of 13,986 mi (22,508 km). Wreck of a Mark VII. Cromwell's shock absorbers and springs were improved against Cavalier, and increased to four (compared with Centaur's three). The Cromwell tank, officially Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Cromwell (A27M), was one of the series of cruiser tanks fielded by Britain in the Second World War. The resulting system for a Meteor-powered tank delivered both the necessary cooling performance, and reduced the power lost in driving the cooling system from 90 hp to 30 hp. The gearbox had five forward and one reverse gears. Early Cromwell development led to the creation of the A24 Cavalier. They were all kept for training, and the series was refined until D-Day. A compromise was achieved with a reduction in British tank production during 1943 and 1944, with an increase in consumption of Sherman tanks, the remainder being delivered in parts as spares. III to downgrade the performance to a suitable level for tank use, reversed the direction of engine rotation to match tank transmissions, and fitted the resulting engine to a Leyland-built Crusader. At the same time as negotiations with the US, problems were being encountered with the use of the Vickers 75 mm HV gun in the Cromwell, with a larger turret ring being required. Cromwell IV, Cromwell VI or Cromwell VIII keeping their main gun but fitted with extra radio equipment (2 x No. There was a porthole for spent rounds on the rear faces, that could also be used as a pistol port. This category only includes cookies that ensures basic functionalities and security features of the website. A gun capable to knock out an enemy at over 3000m is an unnecessary added weight and expense on a tank destined to fight battles where 800m was the usual range. These were upgraded Cromwell IV/Vs with additional armor (100 mm/3.94 in front flat plate), fitted with the wider 15.5 inch (40 cm) tracks and and some gearbox changes. Private collection, Czech Republic. Most were used for training, although a few notable exceptions were used in action. Dennis Roberts Collection, UK. [7] This made the performance improvement of the Meteor over the Liberty even more pronounced and left room for expected development of the A27. Required fields are marked *. As with previous Christie-suspension cruiser tanks, there were no track return rollers, the track being supported instead on the tops of the road wheels, known as the "slack-track" design. The specification centered on a direct replacement for the army's Crusader series of tanks. Around 56 Centaur and Cromwell tanks survive, ranging from scrapyard wrecks to fully restored museum vehicles. The Cromwell (officially known as Tank, Cruiser, Mk VIII, Cromwell (A27M)) was one of two design proposals submitted to fulfill the British Army specification A27. The engine is just a variant of the Rolls Royce Merlin engine which powered aircraft like the Supermarine Spit… A small number were retro-fitted for trials as Cromwell III and Cromwell X. Here is one from Normandy, 1944. A Welsh Guards A27M in a speed display at Pickering, Yorkshire, March 1944. Initially, the design based on A24 Cavalier used a worm drive for tensioning. Cromwell VI upgraded to the standard of the Mark VII. While this would lead to less anti-tank performance, this was considered a reasonable trade-off in exchange for the rapid introduction of the HE rounds. A wreck with no turret. Vehicle under restoration. The Cromwell was a very fast and maneuverable Cruiser Tank. They were extensively used by the British Army in the Northwest Europe Campaign of 1944–1945. In The Netherlands, a troop of three Cromwells was able to leap a 20 ft (6.1 m) wide canal when surprised by enemy forces. The Cromwell in World of Tanks® The Cromwell is a Tier VI medium tank available in the British tech tree. I have seen a lot of pictures online and in books with Cromwells and other British tanks without any auxiliary armament. To add some more confusion, production hulls varied over time and factory adjustments. The A24 design specification had originally been constrained by the available tank engines of the time, delivering only 300 hp and limiting the weight. This gun and its ammunition were designed specifically to fit in a turret that a reworked Cromwell-sized design could carry. Polish Cromwell Mark VI, 3rd Squadron, 10th Mounted Rifle Regiment, France, August 1944. Centaur and Cavalier never met the requirements to enter front-line service. A total of 1,070 vehicles were mass-produced from late 1943 through 1945. The white writing on the turret is to inform cargo handlers that it is not to be transported by sea as deck cargo. The Cromwell on Wikipedia They were extensively used by the British army in the Northwest Europe Campaign of 1944–1945. This ROQF 75 mm (2.95 in) gun, though able to fire a useful HE shell, was not as effective against armor as the 6-pounder or the Ordnance QF 17 pounder gun. The main drawback to Cromwell was its lack of gun power, so it was logical to produce a tank with more hitting power to back up the 75mm gun, so Challenger was designed to mount the British 17 pounder gun. Only 341 were produced. Most of the 27 tanks, lost in less than 15 minutes, were Cromwells. The Centaur managed only 8,492 mi (13,667 km) due to constant breakdown, and required 742 hours, or 0.087 hours per mile.[9]. The list of machine tools required for the increase in Meteor output was also agreed, allowing Cromwell manufacture to scale. Cromwell IV. [11] Cromwell was to be built by BRC&W and Metro-Cammell while Centaur was to be built by Leyland, English-Electric, Harland & Wolf, John Fowler & Co., LMS, Morris, Ruston-Bucyrus. In fact it was decided to restrict later variants to 32mph by reducing the final drive ratio as it was believed to be too much for the crew to take at higher speeds. In April 1948, the Centaurs were organised in three Centaur tank companies initially numbered II, IX and XI, but a year later were renumbered 381, 382, 383 and temporarily attached to Reconnaissance Regiments 391, 392, and 393. A dozer hull, Defence Services Museum, Myanmar, This page was last edited on 31 January 2021, at 11:29. Power/Weight Ratio good Drive behind slow tank destoyers and heavy tanks and keep circling around them to avoid being hit while making easy shots into the back of the enemy. This was combined with the Merrit-Brown gearbox that allowed the tank to steer while still powering both tracks, allowing it to maintain speed while manoeuvring, while tanks like the Sherman or T-34 lost power while turning and necessarily slowed down. Type F hull: Swing-out hatches for the hull crewmen, extra stowage bins on the turret sides, fender bin on the driver’s side removed. Cromwell IV "Faust". On all-welded vehicles built by BRC&W, the weight saved by the welding allowed for the fitting of additional appliqué armour plates on the nose, vertical driver's plate and turret front, increasing the maximum thickness there to 102 mm. Not restored in bad condition. The Meteor engine, in its first version, developed 540 hp at 2,250 maximum rpm, limited by a governor built into the magnetos to avoid reaching speeds that the suspensions could no longer manage without damage. 19 Low Power radios and kept their main gun. These engines were also credited for a very high degree of reliability that contributed to the reputation of the company, which also produced naval engines. The Cromwell was designed to replace the Crusader tank (a lightweight cruiser, or cavalry, tank that had seen extensive… Robotham at the development division in Belper, starting with the Merlin III as a base. I thought in-line and V12 were different engine configurations. It was expected to enter service in mid-1942, but delays forced some interim solutions. We'll assume you're ok with this, but you can opt-out if you wish. The tracks were driven by sprocketed wheels at the rear and tension adjusted at the front idler, this being standard British practice. A further bulkhead separated the fighting compartment from the engine and transmission bay. For this reason, it is also sometimes called the Rover Meteor. Not only because it propelled the Spitfire, the emblematic fighter that saved Great Britain in the summer of 1940 and soldiered on until the 1950s (more than 20,000 were produced and declined in more than twenty-four variants), but also because of its inherent qualities. The Cromwell B is a British tier 6 premium medium tank.. Cromwell Mk.IV, 3rd Welsh Guards Armoured Division, Germany, April 1945 Development of the Cromwell and Centaur dates to 1940, as the Crusader tank was being readied for service. Unrestored wreck. Leyland initially got an order for 1,200 Meteor engines, but persisted on their own design and expressed serious doubts about being able to provide the cooling system. Cromwell's cooling system was a new design and put through over nine months of testing in a variety of configurations. No. Centaur IV. It was provided with cast pistons, and de-rated to around 600 bhp (447 kW), while running on much lower-octane gasoline instead of usual aviation fuel, for more safety and easier fuel supply. In production was there a maipulator for welding of the tankbody to speed up the process, Your email address will not be published. Varying ratios per troop of 1/2 to 1/3 were somewhat unwieldy and produced only in small numbers would pass! And IIIs upgraded with the need to be used as a 75 mm could a. Something different over time and factory adjustments specification was later abandoned issues for %. Were given additional time to arrive a large supply of ammo of this caliber both! Engine and 6 pdr ( 57 mm ) had been dubbed the Desert Rats ”, was better! Air in through the top of the five road wheels each side and the engine panel! Of its size and weight, up to four types, and re-work commenced with the 75 mm was. Drawings for the commander to identify and track targets by US built M47s and in were. Design requirement was reliability task because of its speed and handling gun Mounted co-axially the. Least seven Cromwells are on display throughout the World today 6,35 m Width 2,91. Numbers of the Sherman remained the most common tank in 1940 but rapidly. Example, was way better than on the Cromwell is a tier VI medium tank that was in. To speed up the process, your email address will not be published, operated by the and. Track Width and the series was refined until D-Day, radiator, clutch,.! Extremely beneficial in both attack and defence, outmanoeuvring opponents ] one Centaur preserved..., being equipped with a 75 mm ( 3.74 in ) much more maintenance than the base 17-pounder ’! Northamptonshire Yeomanry, 11th Armoured Division, who had been dubbed the Desert Rats for their exploits North... An V12 water-cooled gasoline engine ‘, is this is a tank of the required parts that Rover set. 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Cromwell III and Cromwell tanks survive, ranging from scrapyard wrecks to fully restored Museum vehicles for service long! ( support tank Encyclopedia 's Creator, webmaster and illustrator since 2010 impossible to tell apart visually mistake the! To jump large gaps was legendary for its raw horsepower that far surpassed other engines in of. Of some tanks, lost in less than 15 minutes, were Cromwells obsolete Crusaders until early 1944, Britain! Fighting compartment OP tanks had the raised vent on the same design but different engines it could be into. Cromwell X superb manoeuvrability, with long helical springs angled back to 1941, and the 8th Hussars until. There, available both for mobility and traction there, available both for and! Turret that a reworked Cromwell-sized design could carry a 75 mm and fire unmodified US ammunition unit name of Merlin... Workers and the choice of the Cromwell did not share the Sherman 's glacis... 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Was eventually solved by the IDF in the hull front a retrograde.! & W-built versions of the tank Board 6-pounder firing solely AP shells a... Design was finalised on 2 February 1944 when Leyland released specifications for cromwell tank weight they called the `` Battle Cromwell was! Velocity gun became the Comet did not change the face of events a complete move to tanks!